The Gurugi Quilombola Community is historically characterized by liberated or fugitive blacks from the slavery regime, now composed of approximately 253 families settled in the rural area of the municipality of Conde, Paraíba. The old houses of the community were built in Taipa with thatched roof. The constructive technique of Taipa consists of masonry of compacted clay, in some cases complemented with bamboos and sticks. With the objective of preserving the identity and cultural characteristics of the remaining black quilombos communities, our proposal for the Basic Health Unit uses clay brick as the main building material. The new BHU presents itself as a re-reading of the old clay houses, which now, by industrial baking produces apparent bricks, used in a dynamic way with openings of cobogo type, with different forms of masonry settlement, promoting visual and physical integration, as well as ventilation conditions, lighting and thermal comfort.
TRANSITION BETWEEN PUBLIC SPACE AND CONSTRUCTED ENVIRONMENT
The spatial integration interface is defined by the hollowed masonry elements and by the host terrace and waits that opens as main access for pedestrians and leads to reception and to central courtyard. The accesses of vehicles and pedestrians have been carefully thought out, prioritizing safety and functionality. The covered area for embarkation and disembarkation of the ambulance is preceded by a deceleration lane adjacent to the highway, and intermediated by a small square with benches, landscaping and lighting. The pedestrian crossing to the other side of the highway has been enlarged and its connection happens close to the community vegetable garden.
ECONOMICS AND CONSTRUCTIVE RATIONALITY
The clay brick is shown as main, low cost, and modular identity material, despite the artisan appearance. The cast-in-place reinforced concrete structure is also kept apparent with its easy-to-use local manpower, durability and low maintenance characteristics. The internal partitions are dry-wall, allowing a more refined technical aspect with regard to the flexibility of the spaces and their adaptation over time.
The climate of the region, being warm and humid tropical, led the design of the building as an inducer of cross ventilation. The prevailing winds from the east are carried into the interior of the building by wide windows and by the façade masonry wall, which channels the wind to the reception with bricks at a 45 degree angle in part of the cobogo. Perfurated elements in the front facade also provide cross ventilation, optimized by the opening of the central atrium, which dissipates hot air and provides natural light. The outer masonry is composed by two rows of massive bricks, totaling 20 centimeters of thickness and guaranteeing thermal inertia. Facades of more intense sunshine, west and south (late afternoon and summer), received horizontal brises of aluminum to protect the direct solar incidence. A lower reservoir treats rainwater collected on the roof, for reuse in building cleaning and irrigation of gardens.